Glossary

Technical vocabulary used by optometrists is not always obvious to the masses. To help you fully understand the terms used during your VU visit, here is a list of words and expressions commonly used by our optometrists in Montreal as well as their explanations. Explore our glossary to learn everything you need to know about glasses, sunglasses, eye exams and everything related to eyewear.

15/15 Vision
15/15 vision means normal acuity at 15 feet, just as 20/20 is a sign of normal acuity at 20 feet. Most optometrists express visual acuity by using the 20/20 standard.
20/20 Vision
20/20 vision is an indication of normal visual acuity or clarity of vision at a distance of 20 feet. A 20/60 vision means that you can see at 20 feet while others can see at 60 feet. Other visual functions that contribute to your overall vision ability are also important, such as peripheral vision, eye coordination, depth perception, color distinction, etc.
Accommodation
Alteration of the lens' curvature radii allowing a clear vision, regardless of the distance from which the observed object is located.
Acetate
Acetate, otherwise known as cellulose acetate, is a synthetic plastic material. This plastic material is known for all the advantages it offers. It is biodegradable and allows the use of a wide range of colours. In addition, this material is easy to work with heat and is tolerated by all skin types. This explains why the latter is often used for the manufacture of good quality glasses.
Acuity
Visual acuity is the ability for the eyes to distinguish an object at the furtherest possible distance.
Aluminuum
Aluminium frames are quite rare. Indeed, this material requires a high level of technicality as its advantages are numerous. They are lighter than titanium, corrosion-resistant and 100% recyclable.
Amblyopia
Also known as lazy eye, this vision disorder consists of a partial or relative loss of visual acuity. This decrease in vision in the eye is caused by poor transmission of light rays captured by the eye and brain.
Ametropia
Deviation of light rays resulting in poor transmission of the image to the retina. In fact, it is an imbalance between the refractive power and the eye’s shape that causes a lack of images sharpness for objects at a long or short distance.
Anisometropia
Eyes’ different perception on the images regardless of the distance between the eye and the object. Anisometropia occurs when one eye does not see as well as the other.
Anti-Reflection Coating
Layer to remove reflections.
Anti-reflective
Treating optical lenses against reflections is a possibility. This type of treatment is composed of different successive layers that interact to reduce glare.
Anti-Scratch Coating
Protective layer against physical glass damage such as scratches
Aqueous Moisture
A transparent liquid that is continuously filtered and renewed and is responsible for maintaining the eyeball’s pressure and shape. It plays an important role in regulating intra-ocular pressure.
Asian size
The Asian size is designed for faces with high cheekbones. The curves and bridge are minimal.
Astigmatism
Caused by an eye’s cornea that is not perfectly round, but rather oval shaped, causing the perceived images to be distorted or stretched, regardless of distance. Rather than focusing on a single point, the light rays scatter at different points behind and in front of the retina, causing these deformations.
Aviator
A traditional drop shape that has made the Ray Ban brand famous
Binocular vision (double vision)
Binocular vision, called double vision or diplopia, is a coordination deficiency in both eyes. During normal vision, the eyes focus on the same object to transmit two similar images to the brain so that they merge. As for double vision, the image perceived by each eye is different and the eye cannot merge them causing extreme confusion. The brain tries to reduce this visual discomfort by deleting or blocking one of the images, affecting the eye that is being deleted and may find it difficult to see regardless of visual correction. It can be hereditary or pathological, such as strabismus, astigmatism, keratoconus or amblyopia. The latter results from an interpretation mechanism of the eye and brain due to a refraction problem. Binocular vision is associated with various symptoms such as headaches, fatigue, eye pain and blurred vision.
Binoculars
Binoculars are brancheless glasses. However, this term can also refer to glasses in familiar terms.
Blepharitis
Eyelids’ inflammation caused by the glands behind the eyelashes that evolves into a chronic and recurrent issue. When there is blepharitis, this causes red eyes, itchy eyes and eye irritation.
Blepharospasm
Symptom that manifests itself in repeated and involuntary the eyelid muscles contractions. In more severe cases, it is possible to be unable to open your eyes. This can be aggravated by fatigue, bright light and anxiety.
Blindness
Blindness is an eye disease that deprives a person of their visual abilities, partial or total. This lack of vision is due to multiple causes such as cataracts, glaucoma, macular degeneration (AMD) and diabetic retinopathy. Early identification of blindness and its rapid management help to limit possible complications.
Brachymetropia
More commonly known as "myopia", this visual disorder is an unbalanced between the eye's length and the cornea or lens' curvature. This lack of vision due to an overly powerful eye is caused by the focusing of the image of a distant object forming in front of the retina. The eye can see near objects clearly, but has difficulty focusing on distant objects. As a result, vision becomes blurred. The stronger the brachymetropia, the closer the text must be to each other.
Branch Ends
Refers to the two rounded ends that rest on the ears.
Breakthrough
This is a type of glasses fitting. Using silicone nuts or jumpers, the frame and lenses are connected discreetly. They are also called invisible.
Bridge
The bridge is the part that connects the optical lenses and distributes the weight evenly over the nose.
Brushed
A brushed appearance refers to a soft rather than polished texture for metal frames.
Butterfly
A butterfly shape often suitable for women with a long lens on the sides and short in the center
Cambering
Curved frames are not suitable for all types of vision and correction. These frames are combined with highly arched lenses, which can be angled up to 25° to the frontal plane.
Carbon
Carbon frames are 10 times stronger and 75% lighter than steel. Carbon offers a great deal of flexibility in terms of shape. However, the colour palette is limited.
Carbon fibre
Carbon fiber frames are 10 times stronger and 75% lighter than steel. Carbon offers a great deal of flexibility in terms of shape. However,colour palette is rather limited.
Cat Eye
Refers to a classic feminine style with a profiled border.
Cataracts
A cataract is an opacification of the eye's natural lens that is responsible for a progressive decrease in vision. The usually clear lens becomes foggy and opaque, rendering vision more difficult. A normal vision’s lens is almost transparent and can change shape to focus on objects at different distances. A cataract is present once it becomes opaque. Lens opacification results from a chemical change within the eye due to aging, injury, heredity reasons or disease. On the other hand, excessive exposure to sunlight or even certain medications can be risk factors for cataracts, which usually occur in both eyes, but often at different rates.
Centering
Centering is a step aimed at aligning the center of the eye with the optical center of the lens to ensure visual comfort.
Central Scotoma
Usually associated with damage to the retina or optic nerve, the central scotoma is the organ located at the back of the eye. A black spot appears in the center of the visual field, leaving only the peripheral vision intact. Central scotoma is caused by pressure on the optic chiasma or age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and in severe cases can cause blindness.
Ciliary muscle
Ciliary muscles allow accommodation, i.e. clear vision, regardless of the distance from which the object are observed. Connected to the lens, the contraction of these muscles releases a ligament, allowing the lens to bend in order to obtain a more precise focus of the light rays on the retina.
Coating
Refers to the addition of a scratch-resistant, anti-reflective or hydrophobic protective layer.
Colour Blindness
More commonly known as "colour blindness”, it is a functional disorder of one or more cones of the ocular retina responsible for colour perception. This is due to the absence of a colour-sensitive pigment in the cells of the retina cones, the nerve layer at the back of the eye. This deficiency in colour vision may occur as a result of nerve or brain damage, may be caused by certain chemicals or may be genetic.
Colouring
Refers to a glass surface treatment that consists in tinting the glass to protect it from the sun's rays. There are several types of shades ranging from 0 to 4.
Conjunctiva and Red Eye
Conjunctivitis is a very common eye disorder. It is an inflammation of the conjunctiva, the thin transparent membrane that lines the inside of the eyelid and an anterior part of the eye. Conjunctivitis can be infectious, allergic or chemical in nature. The infectious form gives a red eye appearance due to the irrational spreading. This form of allergy is caused by pollen, cosmetics or animals. The chemical form comes from strong irritants such as air pollution, harmful vapours and chlorine. When one eye is affected, it is not uncommon for the other eye to be affected as well. Usually, conjunctivitis has no effect on your long-term vision.
Convergence
Convergence is a reflex associated with the accommodation mechanism, which is an autofocus system that simultaneously fixes the same point in near vision in a clear manner. In fact, they are rays of light moving towards the same point. Eyes have the ability to, among other things, perceive the third dimension through eye coordination. A convergence deficit affects this coordination, which misaligns the eyes and can cause double vision, fatigue and headaches.
Cornea
The cornea is the transparent part placed in the center, in front of the eye. Ocularly shaped, it plays a very important optical role since it focuses images on the retina with the lens. The cornea has no blood vessels to maintain this transparency and ensures its humidification from external tears and aqueous humor from the inside. Since bacteria and viruses encounter little resistance, the cornea is fragile. Scratches and lacerations are lesions on the cornea’s surface layer on the eye caused by a foreign body, a rigid contact lens, baby nails or a sheet of paper.
Crystalline
Usually transparent, the lens is an optical lens located behind the iris and is responsible for very important functions within the visual system. It focuses on visual quality, or accommodation, allowing images to focus and converge on the retina, and absorbs some of the UV rays to protect the retina. The lens changes shape according to the distance of an object. If it is close, the lens converges, while if it is far away, the lens flattens to ensure optimal visual quality. Aging is a cause of certain eye diseases such as presbyopia, by a loss of elasticity, or cataracts caused by a loss of transparency.
Curve
Curved frame that is not adaptable to all types of vision
Declining balance
The purpose of degressive glasses is to make shortsightedness more pleasant while improving intermediate vision.
Degenerative Myopia
Malignant myopia, also known as degenerative myopia, is characterized by a greater axial length of the eye and occurs before the age of 10 years. Despite the fact that strong myopia stabilizes in adolescence, its "natural" evolution can cause a progressive decrease in visual acuity, affecting certain eye structures such as the vitreous and retina.
Degree of Protection
This is an index of protection of the eyes against ultraviolet rays. It is strongly recommended to always choose sun lenses with a UV protection index greater than or equal to 400 since this means that your lenses block 99.9% of UV rays.
0-2 Low UV exposure intensity
3-5 Intensity of moderate UV exposure
6-7 Intensity of exposure to high UV rays
8-10 Intensity of exposure to very high UV rays
11 et plus Extreme UV exposure intensity
Depth of field
This is a type of lens that allows you to see from a short and intermediate distance.
Diabetes
Diabetes can have many repercussions in different parts of the eye. When the eye is poorly controlled, excess sugar in the blood thickens and hardens the eye's blood vessels, preventing it from doing its job normally. This also causes blurred or double vision, difficulty perceiving colours, floating bodies, dry eyes and more. Diabetes can cause glaucoma, for example. Diabetes can be detected during a thorough examination by an optometrist.
Diabetic retinopathy
Characterized by the swelling of tiny blood vessels in the eye's thin membrane that receives external light impressions, the retina transmits the images to the brain through a nerve impulse from the optic nerve. Excess sugar in the blood weakens the retinal vessels, causing them to rupture and burst. The retina produces new, even more fragile vessels, which amplifies the swelling and extends to the macula where the center of vision is located. The macula thickens, causing a very significant and partially reversible decrease in visual acuity that can lead to blindness.
Dioplipia (Double Vision)
Diplopia, a.k.a. double vision or binocular vision, is an eye coordination deficiency. For normal vision, the eyes focus on the same object to transmit two similar images to the brain so that it merges. As for double vision, the image perceived by each eye is different and the eye cannot merge them, which causes extreme confusion. The brain tries to reduce this visual discomfort by blocking one of the images, which affects the eye that is being suppressed and can develop difficulties to see, regardless of visual correction. Some can be hereditary or pathological, such as strabismus, astigmatism, keratoconus or amblyopia. The latter results from a refraction problem in the brain which can cause a mechanism in the eye in terms of interpretation. Binocular vision is associated with various symptoms such as headaches, eye fatigue or pain, eye pain and blurred vision.
Dioptera
A measure used in optics to determine the refractive capacity when light rays change path when they pass through a natural environment such as the eye or artificial environment such as lenses from glasses. The higher the diopter, the more important the correction is, considering the eyes’ visual insufficiency.
Double Bridge
Double part that joins the two optical lenses and allows a better robustness of the frame.
Double Foyer (bifocal glasses)
Refers to a lens that corrects two vision problems at the same time, such as myopia (distance vision) and presbyopia (near vision).
Drainer
The sucker is a groove in the frame to maintain the interlocking of the lens.
Dryness of the eyepiece
Dry eyes, commonly referred to as dry eye syndrome, is an infection recognizable through symptoms like itching, burning, eye irritation, sensitivity to light, eye fatigue, and more. Bland at first sight, it causes discomfort that affects visual quality. Insufficient tear production, an abnormal composition that changes the quality of the tears, aging, certain medications or irritants such as smoke are the cause of dry eyes. To help reduce the problem, your eye care professional may prescribe artificial tears or other types of drops.
Emmetropy
Refers to an eye’s ideal optical state. The lens and cornea converge the light rays at a precise point, allowing comfortable and sharp vision from both far and near. Emmetropy is the opposite of ametropia, which consists of a vision defect.
Eye Muscles
The oculomotor muscles, six in number, are responsible for the movement of the eye in its orbit. They allow eye coordination giving both eyes the ability to perceive the same image in slightly different ways. This allows the optic nerves to transmit a single three-dimensional image to the brain. Good eye coordination keeps the eyes in line, but a slight misalignment can cause visual problems such as double vision, fatigue and headaches.
Eye Pressure
Eye pressure, also known as intraocular pressure, is found inside the eyeball and is ensured by the balance of aqueous humor production (which provides the nutrients needed by the iris, lens and cornea) and its evacuation outside the eye. It is an attack of the optic nerve characterized by high pressure inside the eye. An abnormal increase in this intraocular pressure is the main factor in glaucoma, which causes the death of optical fibres and loss of vision.
Eyeball
The eyeball is a vision-receiving organ that captures the light signal before the information is transmitted to the brain in different shapes and colours. It is composed of different regions allowing it to perform its visual function such as the vitreous body, the lens and the aqueous humor.
Eyebrows
Eyebrows are an important parts of our face because they protect the eyes from external aggressors such as sweat, rain and dust. They therefore act as gutters facilitating unwanted elements to fall to the sides of the face. Frowning also prevents eye injuries.
Eyelashes
Like a barrier, eyelashes protect the eyes by stopping impurities and foreign bodies such as dust on the edge of the eyelids to prevent them from entering the eye. They also retain water, sweat drops and reduce the sun's rays for optimal protection of our vision.
Farsightedness
Also called hyperoxia, hyperopia is a vision defect due to an optic nerve that is too short or not powerful enough, which makes it difficult for the eyes to distinguish objects at a short distance, as opposed to a long distance. This refractive disorder therefore requires the eye to focus in order to prevent the image, which is formed behind the retina, from being blurred, causing visual fatigue.
Flexible Hinge
This type of hinge uses an internal spring to improve strength and flexibility.
Floating Bodies and Spots
Floating bodies, commonly known as floaters, are small black spots or a semi-transparent filter that appear and reduce the visual quality of your field of vision. These are actually small particles in the intraocular (vitreous) gel that are noticed when they pass through the field of vision. As the eyes move, floating bodies also move, but they tend to drift when the eyes move. Floating bodies shade the retina and it is this shadow that we see. Aging, injuries, eye diseases and disintegration of eye fluid are the main causes of floating bodies.
Forvea
Forvea is a shallow hollow located in the retina’s center, near the optical axis of the eye. It provides central vision, allows to distinguish with precision details, and allows to see and distinguish colours, since it is composed of more than 50 000 photosensitive cells (cones). Should the forvea go through an incident, it can cause loss of vision and colour perception.
Four seasons
Familiar term for photochromic glass
Frame ID
Refers to a reference code printed on the inside of the branch. The frame ID gives information such as brand, model, colour, branch length or size.
Frame materials
Refers to the material of which the frame is made.
Frames
Refers to the overall structure that allows optical lenses to be placed on your nose.
Front bar
The front bar is the one between the two optical glasses.
Front hinge without pin
They are used for acetate or nylon frames, and are made of nickel and silver.
Front part Front
Refers to the entire front part of the frame.
Full Boaders
Refers to a frame in which the contour of the lenses is completely covered.
Geometrics
Tight angle shaped glasses
Glass height
The lens height is an essential measure for progressive lenses and some single vision lenses. It can be measured accurately by a vision professional.
Glasses
Glass was the most commonly used material in the manufacture of optical glass before the arrival of plastics.
Glaucoma
A disease of the optic nerve that damages the fibres that are responsible for transmitting images from the eye to the brain. This can cause blind spots that can lead to a decrease or even total loss of vision. Vision gradually becomes more blurred and if not treated, it can lead to decreased visual performance and even blindness.
Groove
The groove is hollowed out of an organic lens for a nylon-type frame.
Half-Boarders
Refers to a frame where the outline of the lenses is only half covered.
HD
It is a digital lens with features that offer maximum clarity and detail. This type of glasses is suitable for high index prescriptions.
Hd lenses
Lenses designed based on the digitization of your eyes. This is uniquely adapted to your eyes.
Heat reversible deformation alloy
It is a metal alloy (often titanium and nickel) used in optical frames manufacturing. This alloy is robust and retains its shape.
Hemeralopia
Commonly referred to as "night blindness", it is characterized by a progressive decrease or loss of vision in areas of low light or darkness.
High index lenses
High index lenses are very thin and lightweight and have increased refractive properties.
Hinge
The hinge is the part of the frame that connects the rim to the branches. This mechanism allows the branches to be deployed and folded up.
Hydrophobic
Refers to a coating that repels water and sweat.
Hydrophobic coating
Layer to protect glass from water
Intraocular tension
Intraocular tension is found inside the eyeball and is ensured by the balance of aqueous humor production (which provides the necessary nutrients to the iris, lens and cornea) and its evacuation outside the eye. Optic nerve damage is characterized by high pressure inside the eye. An abnormal increase in this intraocular pressure is the main factor in glaucoma, which causes the death of optical fibres and loss of vision.
Invisible
Also known as pierced frames, the term "invisible" is a type of fitting for glasses.
Keratitis
Cornea inflammation resulting in an infection of the outer membrane covering the eye. The infection is of microbial, viral, allergic or impact origin and is usually related to wearing contact lenses. It results in a loss of transparency and if the infection is chronic, the cornea is slowly covered with brownish pigmentation.
Keratoconus
Keratoconus is a disease that progresses gradually and causes a cornea deformation and a decrease in vision that becomes impossible to correct completely with glasses. Reaching the central part of the eye, it becomes thinner and curves outwards, causing irregular distortion. The cornea becomes opaque due to tissues healing that have become fragile. Keratoconus appears in late adolescence under blurred or distorted vision, rapid decrease in visual acuity, glare from light and more.
Lacrimal Glands
The tear drop system consists of several components that allow tears to form, be distributed over the inner surface of the eye and evacuate, ensuring that the eyes always remain moist. Tears are fine drops of salt water that clean and protect the eye from dust. If there is mucus, infection or inflammation, the path is broken, causing dry eyes.
Light Ray Hinge
Type of hinge made of flexible titanium.
Lysozyme
This globular protein is an enzyme formed by amino acids that have the ability to destroy and dissolve certain bacteria during secretions such as tears, saliva, mucus, breast milk, etc.
Macula
This yellow stain, commonly referred to as a "macula", is located at the back of the eye, the center of the retina, and is characterized by a strong presence of cones. These cones are directly exposed to light rays allowing a clear and precise vision in low light environments. AMD, being the disease of age-related macular degeneration, affects the visual quality of the eye as we age and first affects the macular before spreading.
Mariotte’s spot (optical papilla or blind spot)
This is part of the retina where the optic nerve is located, which transmits nerve impulses to the brain from the blood vessels. The Mariotte's spot is a small portion of the retina that is devoid of photoreceptors and thus completely blind.
Matte
Refers to a non-glossy surface used for metal and acetate frames
Melanin
Melanin is a dark pigmentary substance responsible for normal skin, hair and iris colouring. It plays an important role in protecting the skin against sun-based UV radiation, which accentuates the ageing process. During this period, these melanin pigments seem to gradually lose their properties, resulting in hair colour loss. On this point, some scientists claim that the number of pigments would decrease as aging progresses, while for others, it would be a problem of the distribution of these pigments in the skin, hence the appearance of age spots.
Metal
Metal frames are made of an alloy such as monel, titanium or nickel silver.
Mineral
It is a heavier and less resistant type of glass, but it does not scratch and is thinner than organic glass of the same type.
Mineral Glasses
Glasses made of silica and a mixture of oxides fused at high temperature. These glasses are heavy and can break. However, they are scratch-resistant.
Mobile Storage (flotters)
Commonly referred to as floating bodies, they are similar to blackheads that move with each movement of the eyes or head. Mobile scotoma affects the majority of people at some point. Generally speaking, this phenomenon is nothing serious and nothing to worry about.
Monel
A component made from nickel and copper used in the manufacture of lightweight, corrosion-resistant metal frames.
Moulded (Plastic)
Injection molding is a process to insert nylon or plastic.
Mounting
Mounting a pair of glasses represents the assembly of the different parts.
Mounting forms
Refers to the general frame appearance. Eyewear designers design frames for all tastes and lifestyles.
Multifocal lenses
Lenses that correct two vision problems at the same time.
Myopia
This visual disorder is an imbalance between the eye’s length and the cornea or lens’ curvature. This lack of vision, due to an overly powerful eye, is caused by the focusing of the image of a distant object forming in front of the retina. The eye can see objects clearly at a short distance, but has difficulty focusing on distant objects. Therefore, the stronger the myopia, the more blurry distance vision will be.
Nervous Glands
Organic structure composed of biological tissues and nerve cells located in the retina. Nerve nodes are a link between nerve fibres that allow the message from rods and cones to be transmitted to the brain.
Nickel-Silver
The alloy of nickel and zinc forms nickel-silver. This type of alloy is very rigid, which explains why it is often used in the manufacture of hinges, cams and bridges.
Nylon
This is a type of glasses fitting consisting of a metal part and a nylon thread part.
Nylon fiber
Nylon fiber is an alternative to acetate frames that maintains the lightweight appearance of the frame and is available in a wide range of colours and styles.
One-piece hinge
Type of hinge made of a single block of metal.
Optalmologist
As a specialized eye doctor, the main function of the ophthalmologist is to diagnose different eye pathologies and treat them with special treatments, drugs or surgery adapted to the ocular disease. With his or her training, he or she can perform complete visual function assessments and provide patient-specific eye care, referred by an optometrist.
Optical Add-on
The optical power of a lens necessary for short-distance vision in addition to long-distance vision.
Optical Chiasma
Optical chiasma has an important role in visual perception, it is the part of the brain where the two optic nerves intersect, thus allowing the transmission of visual information from the nerve impulse, produced by the retina, to the occipital lobe. Each retina is divided into two hemirethins (one internal nasal and one external temporal). The nasal hemirethins’ optic pathways undergo a lateral change in the chiasma.
Optical Nerves
The optic nerve is a sensory nerve that assimilates information perceived by the retina and then transmits these visual perceptions to the brain. Starting on the retina, optic nerves contain cells that allow light rays to be captured and then transmitted as nerve impulses to the brain.
Optical Papilla (Mariotte’s spot or blind spot)
Part of the retina where the optic nerve is located, which transmits nerve impulses to the brain from the blood vessels. Mariotte's task is a small portion of the retina that is devoid of photoreceptors and thus completely blind.
Optical Power
Optical power is a characteristic of a visual instrument that defines the ability of a lens or contact lens to correct a visual impairment. The greater the curvature of the lens, the greater the degree of correction, and therefore its refraction, will be. The optical power is evaluated in diopters.
Optician
An eye care professional and expert in visual orthotics, he or she is responsible for assessing ocular needs and is certified to sell or fit ophthalmic lenses, eyeglasses, sunglasses, contact lenses or any other optical instrument that assists vision and ocular health. This knowledge allows us to manufacture, adjust and repair your glasses according to the prescriptions given by a certified optometrist or ophthalmologist. An optician is not the one who assesses, diagnoses or treats your visual problems, but rather the one who ensures that your visual instrument is adapted to your situation.
Optometrist
This eye care professional is a major player in eye health care, providing eye examinations and screening for visual problems such as visual acuity, astigmatism, myopia, hyperopia, hyperopia, etc. With the ophthalmologist, the optometrist evaluates, diagnoses and treats visual impairments in addition to being responsible for the sale of ocular instruments such as eyeglasses, sunglasses and contact lenses. It can also treat eye diseases such as conjunctivitis and minor emergencies such as foreign bodies.
Orbit
Refers to a bone cavity, two in number, in the skull in which the eye and its internal structure are located: the optic nerve, ophthalmic blood vessels, muscles and oculomotor nerves. Located on either side of the nasal cavities, they are shaped like hollow quadrangular pyramids. They are limited by the orbital rim which disappears to accommodate the tear glands and closed by a moving part, the eyelids.
Ordinance
A prescription is a document issued by your optometrist containing information specific to your visual health. It must be less than 3 months old to be valid.
Organic
Plastic lenses are widely used in the optical world. Made from resin, they are very resistant and lightweight. However, they remain sensitive to scratches.
Organic lenses
Plastic lenses are more resistant than mineral lenses and are more resistant to shocks. However, they must be treated to be scratch-resistant.
Orthoptics / Orthoptists
This branch of ophthalmology is a paramedical practice that prevents and rehabilitates visual disorders such as strabismus, amblypyge or oculomotor paralysis. It interacts with other important medical specialists such as opticians, ophthalmologists, occupational therapists and psychomotor therapists.
Oval
Elongated horizontal shape with rounded curves
Oversized
This is a tendency to wear glasses with oversized frames in comparison to one's face.
Pad
A familiar term for platelets.
Peripheral Vision
Peripheral vision is an important part of human vision. It is defined by the ability to see objects without looking at them directly. Many visual disorders can lead to peripheral vision loss and can occur suddenly or gradually without symptoms being noticed. The causes of this vision loss can be as minimal , such as an eye migraine, a floating body of the vitreous or more serious causes such as retinal detachment, glaucoma, stroke, optic nerve attack, etc.
Peripheral Vision
Peripheral vision is the ability to see objects without looking at them directly
Photochromic lenses
A photochromic lens has the ability to change its tint depending on the amount of ultraviolet light to which it is confronted.
Photochromy
These lenses darken or lighten according to the intensity of light (exposure to ultraviolet rays).
Photophobia
Many people suffer from this kind of phobia. Photophobia is characterized by increased sensitivity to light or even complete intolerance to it. Light, even of low intensity, causes visual discomfort, migraines, eye problems such as dry eyes, etc. This visual impairment can be caused by taking many medications as well as many light sources such as natural, artificial, fluorescent and other light sources. People with this condition must absolutely protect their eyes from UV rays, as they tend to wrinkle their eyes frequently.
Pigmentary retinopathy
Retinopathy pigmentosa is a genetic disease caused by a retina's photorecptor cells degeneration. They are responsible for the visual perception transforming light rays into images. Due to impulses, this disease causes progressive destruction of cones and rods and can lead to blindness depending on its severity. Loss of night or peripheral vision is the most common sign when suffering from retinopathy pigmentosa.
Pillow
A rectangular silhouette with curved edges making the lines softer and more feminine.
Plastics
A type of material that is often used to talk about acetate or nylon.
Platelet Arm
The platelet arm is the part that folds your glasses' arms.
Platelets
The placelets are soft plastic pads located on either side of the nose.
Polarized
Polarized lenses eliminate glare. They considerably improve comfort in areas with high reflections such as at sea or on the road.
Polarizing Lenses
It is a versatile solar glass that filters reflections while improving detail, colour and depth perception.
Polycarbonate
This material is a type of thin high index plastic. It is light and resistant.
Polycarbonate
Polycarbonate is a particularly resistant material. It is widely used for pierced glasses. Polycarbonate lenses provide effective protection against UV rays.
Polycarbonate lenses
Polycarbonate lenses have the particularity of being thinner and lighter than plastic lenses
Power of the glasses
The power of the glass refers to the power of the correction of the glass.
Pre-calibration
By means of the useful diameter, the shape of the frame or the pupillary distances, pre-calibration is a thinning treatment of the lens reserved for hyperopic patients.
Presbyopia
Presbyopia is a vision anomaly caused by the aging of the lens, which loses its elasticity and ability to focus on close-up images, or accommodation. The lens then becomes rigid and changes shape more easily causing loss of near vision. You must then move away from an object to be able to see it clearly. Headaches, pain around the eyes, visual fatigue and difficulty seeing clearly in the absence of a light source are all signs of presbyopia.
Progressive
Progressive lenses are reserved for presbyopes and offer clear vision at all distances.
Progressive Lenses
Refers to glasses that offer up to three optical layers in the same glass.
Pterygium
A pterygium is a mass of fleshy tissue that grows on the cornea, either on the inner corner of the eye, but can also appear on the outer corner. Consisting of collagen and fibrovascular tissue, pterygium emerges from the conjunctiva and eventually touches the cornea, which can sometimes become large enough to interfere with vision. It was considered a benign growth of the conjunctiva of the eye, pterygium is related to excessive exposure to sun, wind, dust and dry eyes. However, it is possible to minimize its appearance by protecting your eyes from these elements.
Pupil
The pupil is the black central part of the eye at the centre of the iris that expands in darkness and contracts in bright light. This controls the amount of light entering the retina. The black appearance of the pupil allows light to be absorbed.
Pupillary Gap
The pupil distance is the distance in millimetres between pupils. In the eyewear business, the half pupil distance is measured, which corresponds to the distance between the edge of the nose and the pupil (i.e. half the pupil distance). This measurement allows the glass to be centered, to match the optical center of the glass with the pupil.
Quantity of vision
The eye's ability to adjust to different environments and to different variances in the focus of light rays associated with blurred vision.
Rectangle
Rectangle shaped glasses
Refraction
Refraction is light's ability to only change direction when it passes from one medium to another and at a different density. It is therefore a change in the direction of radiation so that it reaches a single fixed point, the retina.
Refractive Index
Deflection of light that passes through a transparent material to improve the eyes’ optical capacity. The higher the index, the greater the deviation of the light and the thinner the glass will be to allow equal power of refraction.
Refractometer
A refractometer is a device that automatically measures an eye's refraction, and therefore its strength, to detect different vision disorders such as myopia, hyperopia, astigmatism and presbyopia. With this test, the optometrist will be able to find the right lens to correct your vision.
Resting glasses
A scope designed to relieve visual fatigue without any vision correction.
Retina
Many disorders affect the retina, the layer of nerve cells that covers the back of the eye. Composed of photoreceptors, they play an essential role in the perception of light, colour, detail, shape and movement. They allow the eye to perceive light and send impulses that are recognized and translated as images by the brain.
Retina tearing or dislodging
Tearing or detachment of the retina can have serious consequences on visual health. Tearing occurs when damaged retinal tissue remains in place, while detachment occurs when liquid infiltrates and separates the various layers of the retina by breaking nerve fibres. If the detachment is not properly treated, the retina will remain permanently damaged. The detached or torn portions then lose their sensitivity to light and will not be able to transmit visual information properly to the brain. The retina can tear for a variety of reasons, including after an impact or because of the narrowing of the vitreous body that detaches when pulling on the retina. It is possible to detect tearing or detachment of the retina with a sudden appearance of floating bodies or flash, a darkened visual field or headaches on one side only.
Retinal imaging
Retinal imaging is a tool that allows health professionals to make an early diagnosis and prevent certain diseases.
Retro
Retro is a vintage style characterized by round shapes, rivets or metal.
Rivet Hinge
To give a vintage look, the rivet hinges are fixed at the front and use the twin holes.
Round
Round shaped glasses.
Sclera
Sclera is the eye's outer envelope made of very resistant fibrous tissues that protects the inside of the eye, and is recognizable thanks to its white colour.
Scotome
Scotoma is a blind spot in the visual field. Several types of scotoma exist such as central scotoma, mobile and sparkling hemianopsia.
Scratch-resistant
Organic glass is highly appreciated for its lightness and comfort. However, it can be scratched very easily. Fortunately, covering this glass with a scratch-resistant varnish is a possibility.
Simple Vision (SV)
Only one correction for all parts of the glass
Single socket
The monocle is the old version of the glasses and was worn on one eye only.
Single vision lenses
Refers to a lens that corrects a single vision problem.
Slimmed down
Working the glass to make it thinner is a possibility. This operation is called slimming.
Slimmed Lenses
Slimmed lenses refer to glasses that have been refined
Sparkling Stocome
The sparkling stocome is often perceived as a light spot that resembles the glare caused by a camera flash. This phenomenon persists for 20 to 40 minutes, it can occur several times a day and can be accompanied by headaches.
Square
A rectangular silhouette with curved edges making the lines softer and more feminine.
Stainless Steel
Stainless steel frames, also known as stainless steel frames, are lightweight and strong. They have characteristics similar to those of titanium, but are generally less expensive. They can be a good alternative to metal frames because they are hypoallergenic.
Standards
The standards correspond to legal requirements.
Stereoscopic Vision
Stereoscopic vision, or relief vision, is the ability to see objects in three dimensions. Thanks to binocular neurons in complex brain mechanisms, they are the only neurons to receive nerve impulses that allow them to see in three dimensions from two images perceived by each eye. Vision can be affected if there is severe vision impairment in one eye either through amblyopia, diplopia or strabismus.
Stereoscopic Vision
Refers to the ability to see objects in 3 dimensions
Sticks and Cones
They are photoreceptors made up of nerve cells located in the retina. They perceive light rays and transmit them as a nerve signal to the brain. They provide quality vision in low-light areas. However, these photoreceptors are unable to distinguish colours.
Strabismus
Also known as a "deviated eye", strabismus is an eye disorder that causes the eyes misalignment due to weakness of one or more eye muscles. Since the eyes are unable to coordinate and fix the same object, they look in different directions, creating a double vision. Strabismus can be hereditary, accidental (stroke, trauma) or pathological due to an uncorrected visual problem such as hyperopia and astigmatism or caused by disease.
Sunglasses
Glasses with lenses that protect against ultraviolet rays
Surgical Steel
Surgical steel is a material made from a steel and titanium fusion. This alloy is ultra light, flexible and robust. Glasses made of surgical steel are highly resistant to impact, corrosion and heat.
Tears
The cornea is a fibrous membrane essential for clear vision, the tear glands produce aqueous and saline secretions. This is a normal phenomenon that allows the eyeball to be permanently humidified and protects the cornea from undesirable effects.
Templates
The temples refer to the lateral branches of the glasses.
Tenon
Connect the front of the glasses to the branches
Tiles
A familiar term for spectacle lenses.
Tint
Tint is a glass colouring that protects the eye from external light aggressions.
Titanium
Refers to a high-end, lightweight metal. This material is very strong and resistant to corrosion.
Trachoma
Trachoma is caused by contagious conjunctivitis that can lead to visual impairment and even irreversible blindness. This infection, which is one of the oldest, is caused by Chlamydia Trachomatis and is transmitted by direct or indirect contact with clothing, hands, dirty toiletries and germs transmitted by dusts carried by the wind. The first symptoms of infection are conjunctival hyperemia, palpebral edema, photophobia or tearing. If not treated with topical or systemic antibiotics, corneoconjunctival and palpebral scarring can occur and greatly affect visual abilities.
U.V. (ultraviolet)
Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is electromagnetic radiation of the same nature as visible light. However, its wavelengths, between 20 and 400 nanometers (being one billionth of a meter), are too short to be perceived by the human eye. The shorter the wavelength, the more harmful it will be. These rays pass through the ozone layer and can cause various health damages that can lead to long-term cell aging.
Ultraviolet (UV) radiation
Also called "UV rays", this radiation is made up of UVA and UVB rays from the sun. Sunlight is dangerous to eye health. They can damage certain functions if your exposed eyes are not adequately protected.
UV protection
Refers to a colouring that protects against UV rays from the sun.
Uvea
The uvea, being the intermediate part of the eye pigment's part membrane, is the eyeball's vascular tunic which includes the choroid, the ciliary body and the iris.
Uveit
Often of infectious origin, the uveitis is an inflammation of part or all of the uvea, which is located at the centre of the eye and consists of the iris, choroid and ciliary body. This infection can cause intense redness in the eye.
Varilux
Familiar term for progressive lenses
Vintage
Refers to an Old School style characterized by flake patterns, metal or round or square shapes
Visual Corrections
Required lens power to correct various eye disorders, and thus achieve optimal visual acuity, I.e. 10/10. The two eyes do not necessarily have the same needs, hence it is normal to notice different corrections on the prescription.
Visual Fatigue
Visual fatigue is recognizable by tingling, blurred or split vision, eye irritation, eye pain, excessive blinking and headache, usually at the end of the day.
Visual Field
The visual field is the peripheral space that an eye can perceive when it stares at a fixed point straight ahead. Normally, it extends 60° up, 70° down and 90° sideways to correspond to a 180° field of view. The factors that cause a loss of one’s visual field are multiple: visual impairment, injury, accident or eye disease. Visual field examination therefore makes it possible to detect and monitor the progression of diseases such as glaucoma, which can affect vision and even lead to blindness if not treated.
Visual Quality
Adaptation of the eye to changes in brightness. In the dark, it is the rods of the retina and not the cones that will work to allow a certain visual quality.
Visual Sharpness
Visual sharpness describes the eye's ability to distinguish between two separate points. In distance vision, it is the ability to discern a small object located as far away as possible at a distance of approximately five metres. It is measured thanks to drawings or letters (optotypes) that are made during an eye exam.
Window glass
Familiar term for a glasses lens
Without Boarders
Refers to a frame where the outline of the lenses is not covered at all.
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